Home Page

Papers

Submissions

News

Editorial Board

Special Issues

Open Source Software

Proceedings (PMLR)

Transactions (TMLR)

Search

Statistics

Login

Frequently Asked Questions

Contact Us



RSS Feed

The Optimal Ridge Penalty for Real-world High-dimensional Data Can Be Zero or Negative due to the Implicit Ridge Regularization

Dmitry Kobak, Jonathan Lomond, Benoit Sanchez; 21(169):1−16, 2020.

Abstract

A conventional wisdom in statistical learning is that large models require strong regularization to prevent overfitting. Here we show that this rule can be violated by linear regression in the underdetermined $n\ll p$ situation under realistic conditions. Using simulations and real-life high-dimensional datasets, we demonstrate that an explicit positive ridge penalty can fail to provide any improvement over the minimum-norm least squares estimator. Moreover, the optimal value of ridge penalty in this situation can be negative. This happens when the high-variance directions in the predictor space can predict the response variable, which is often the case in the real-world high-dimensional data. In this regime, low-variance directions provide an implicit ridge regularization and can make any further positive ridge penalty detrimental. We prove that augmenting any linear model with random covariates and using minimum-norm estimator is asymptotically equivalent to adding the ridge penalty. We use a spiked covariance model as an analytically tractable example and prove that the optimal ridge penalty in this case is negative when $n\ll p$.

[abs][pdf][bib]        [code]
© JMLR 2020. (edit, beta)