Vikas C. Raykar, Shipeng Yu.
Year: 2012, Volume: 13, Issue: 16, Pages: 491−518
With the advent of crowdsourcing services it has become quite cheap and reasonably effective to get a data set labeled by multiple annotators in a short amount of time. Various methods have been proposed to estimate the consensus labels by correcting for the bias of annotators with different kinds of expertise. Since we do not have control over the quality of the annotators, very often the annotations can be dominated by spammers, defined as annotators who assign labels randomly without actually looking at the instance. Spammers can make the cost of acquiring labels very expensive and can potentially degrade the quality of the final consensus labels. In this paper we propose an empirical Bayesian algorithm called SpEM that iteratively eliminates the spammers and estimates the consensus labels based only on the good annotators. The algorithm is motivated by defining a spammer score that can be used to rank the annotators. Experiments on simulated and real data show that the proposed approach is better than (or as good as) the earlier approaches in terms of the accuracy and uses a significantly smaller number of annotators.