Prediction Under Latent Factor Regression: Adaptive PCR, Interpolating Predictors and Beyond

Xin Bing, Florentina Bunea, Seth Strimas-Mackey, Marten Wegkamp.

Year: 2021, Volume: 22, Issue: 177, Pages: 1−50


This work is devoted to the finite sample prediction risk analysis of a class of linear predictors of a response $Y\in \mathbb{R}$ from a high-dimensional random vector $X\in \mathbb{R}^p$ when $(X,Y)$ follows a latent factor regression model generated by a unobservable latent vector $Z$ of dimension less than $p$. Our primary contribution is in establishing finite sample risk bounds for prediction with the ubiquitous Principal Component Regression (PCR) method, under the factor regression model, with the number of principal components adaptively selected from the data---a form of theoretical guarantee that is surprisingly lacking from the PCR literature. To accomplish this, we prove a master theorem that establishes a risk bound for a large class of predictors, including the PCR predictor as a special case. This approach has the benefit of providing a unified framework for the analysis of a wide range of linear prediction methods, under the factor regression setting. In particular, we use our main theorem to recover known risk bounds for the minimum-norm interpolating predictor, which has received renewed attention in the past two years, and a prediction method tailored to a subclass of factor regression models with identifiable parameters. This model-tailored method can be interpreted as prediction via clusters with latent centers. To address the problem of selecting among a set of candidate predictors, we analyze a simple model selection procedure based on data-splitting, providing an oracle inequality under the factor model to prove that the performance of the selected predictor is close to the optimal candidate. We conclude with a detailed simulation study to support and complement our theoretical results.